Spain is known for being a footballing or a futbol nation, that is not only represented in the Spanish Team, but more so highlighted in Club Football biggest clubs being Real Madrid and Barcelona (they by most are considered the pinnacle). Until Spain won in 2010 (even after the 2008 triumph in the European Championships), those in Spain if they were being honest with themselves (the majority), would have not expected to have won the World Cup, because until that victory, they were considered the best footballing nation to have never lifted the trophy. So much so, that previous historic performances added to the pessimism, highlighted on what was known as the "la maldición de cuartos" or the "the curse of the quarterfinals", which really stemmed from not being able to break through that part of the bracket (and continually falling out during that stage of the tournament).
Spanish futbol is known for many things, but one that sticks out is their iconic method of playing which is very technical (the colloquial way that you may have heard is "tiqui-taka" or "take the ball/pass the ball"). The way they started perfecting this actually was almost casual in the sense, where Luis Aragones (the manager of Spain at the time) began to find the right blend of Madrid and Barcelona nationals as the base of the team, and then sprinkled in the right players from other teams in other leagues (more than just La Liga).
Spain hailed one of the most successful, historic, and arguably the greatest Golden Generation (in debates, the 2008-2013 Spain National Team is said to be the most successful other than the Brazilian generation of the 60s). Spain is the only national team with three consecutive major titles. They also became the first European team to win a World Cup that was outside of Europe in 2010 (that has later been followed by Germany in 2014 at Brazil). Additionally, they are the only nation to win back-to-back European championships. And then lastly, from 2008 to 2013, Spain won the FIFA Team of the Year (they have won six times), which is the second-most of any nation, behind only Brazil (12) and one ahead of Belgium (5).
In terms of managers, there are the obvious two icons that led both teams to the championships being Vicente Del Bosque and Luis Aragones. However, it is as important to mention that much of the base, touch, and technical way of play has also been very much influenced by Pep Guardiola, who has never managed the Spanish National Team, but is said to have influenced and imprinted the way of play arguably more than the two "misters" to have lifted the trophies. Pep Guardiola, and his managing and style of play, has him arguably as one of, if not the greatest futbol/ soccer manager of all time.
Other major championships: They have won 3 European Championships with 1 runner up finish.